What is the difference between internal trade and foreign trade?


The upcoming discussion will acquaint you with the differences and difference between internal trade and external trade.

Thanks to technology, trading on a global scale can now be accomplished by large corporations and independent wholesalers. We as humans have been trading for centuries, whether it is livestock and building materials in the Middle Ages, or Bitcoin and technology in the 21st century. Trading seems to be part of our DNA.

When it comes to setting up and expanding a wholesale business, you may be interested in selling your products or services to an international market. There are many differences between outbound and inbound trade which consist in selling within your country, expanding your business and shipping products abroad.

You must understand the difference between domestic trade and international trade and the differences between them before you pass on expanding to global markets, we have put together this simple guide. We will give you a basic overview of what domestic trade is, and how international trade can open up more opportunities for you and your company. Then we’ll explain how you can set yourself up online for cross-border e-commerce.

What is foreign trade?

Trade that takes place in two or more countries is known as international trade. No country is ideal from an economic point of view. No country can produce its basic commodities on its own. Besides, no single country can produce essential commodities. Many countries can have better facilities due to differences in geographical location, weather, rainfall, natural resources, etc.

For example, Canada can produce wheat in a penalty way and Bangladesh can produce jute in a fine way. Therefore, they could exchange these items among themselves. In this way, international trade takes place between countries.

What is internal trade?

Trade that takes place within a country is called domestic trade. Domestic trade takes place in many sections of the country. In short, trade that takes place within the geographical area of ​​a country is traditionally known as domestic trade.

Not every region of a country produces all goods equally. But all people in all regions have equal rights to use their commodities.

For this reason, the system commerce Necessary for the exchange of goods between each other. One region produces one commodity and the exchange with other regions within the country is known as domestic trade.

What is the difference between internal trade and foreign trade?

Where the difference is internal trade foreign trade
the meaning The buying and selling of goods within a country is known as internal trade or domestic trade. The buying and selling of goods and services outside the country is called international or foreign trade.
different currencies Domestic or inter-country trade involves the use of only one currency, i.e., the local currency. International trade involves the use of two different currencies, the domestic currency and the foreign currency.
Exchange and control of trade Within the country, there is a free flow of goods and services. There is no free flow of goods and services from one country to another.
politically Domestic or domestic trade takes place within the same political unit. International or foreign trade takes place between politically different units.
transportation cost Domestic or domestic trade involves lower transportation cost. International trade involves a relatively larger transportation cost.
Risks In inside trading, the amount of risk is relatively less. In foreign trade, there are greater risks.
The difference between internal trade and foreign trade

Differences between domestic trade and international trade?

1. The field of trade

Domestic trade takes place within a country, on the contrary, foreign trade takes place in two or more countries. The field of international trade is higher than domestic trade?

2. Differences in the dynamics of matter.

Raw materials for production can move freely within the country in the case of domestic trade. But in the case of international trade, raw materials for production cannot move freely between countries. Due to geographical location, language differences, social distance, transportation cost, excessive government rules and regulations can hinder the free movement of raw materials for production.

3. Differences between natural resources

There is no difference in the characteristics of natural resources within a country, but different countries have different types of natural resources and there are great differences in their characteristics.

For example, some countries are good in the agricultural sectors and some in the industrial sectors.

4. The differences between money and the banking system.

The same monetary policy and banking system exist within the country. But different countries have different rules and regulations in their banking and monetary systems. The foreign exchange rate is essential to international trade. For this reason, international trade is more complex than domestic trade.

5. Differences between business policy

Inside trade follows the same business policy in case of trade. Because these products can move freely within the country, advertising transactions can be made easier.

But international trade is not able to follow the same rules and regulations. Because many countries follow different kinds of rules and regulations. So many new problems may arise in international trade.

6. Market differences

There are no fundamental differences between people in their taste, choice and preferences in local trade. Besides, there are differences in the markets of several countries that have different choices, preferred advertising tastes, and different cultural programs. This is why international trade requires more attention than domestic trade.

7. Differences between financing policy.

There are differences between fiscal policy, tax policy and tariff policy. The central bank of a country follows rules favorable to their country. Domestic trade follows the same rules while international trade does not follow the same rules in their trading systems.

8. The difference between production systems.

Different countries have different production and economic systems. There are different rules and regulations in the production system, labor law and factory operation in different countries. This is why international trade is separate from domestic trade as a result cost of production varies from country to country

9. The difference between the transportation cost.

Because of the geographical location, domestic trade does not care about transportation costs. But in international trade, transportation cost is a big issue and its influence is greater in international trade.

10. Balanced transactions.

Insider trading has no problem with balancing transactions. But in foreign trade, balanced deal is very important. In international trade, money inflation, money depreciation, and export control regimes are taken to maintain positively balanced transactions in international business.

11. A separate national government.

There are separate national governments for both internal and external trade. Each country has a separate national government. They adopt separate and free rules in their trading systems. Therefore, international trade faces more problems than domestic trade. This is why international trade required separate theories.

Domestic trade and foreign trade

The exchange of goods and services between countries and across borders is referred to as international trade. Internal trade occurs when that business is conducted within the borders of a country. There are many differences between domestic trade and foreign trade, but the basic principles are the same.

One of the main differences is the cost. The cost of international trade is much higher than domestic trade. This is true for many reasons.

The first reason is time. The time it takes to move goods across oceans can cost companies money. There can be wasted time on the border, and you must pay customs fees Customs inspections can be stressful. However, with today’s ocean freight logistics and advances in ocean freight transportation, many of these problems are disappearing.

Modern cargo ships can carry a lot of freight, which reduces the cost of freight for everyone. Aspects of the global standardization of shipping containers have made the process of shipping from one country to another much easier. When equipment and goods are identical from one country to another, there is no need to repack or move the goods into new containers. This has also increased the security of shipping abroad.

It may appear that the import and export of goods may have a negative impact on a country that produces and transports its goods within its borders, but this is not necessarily true.

Many countries benefit from importing materials to drive their production industry. Even technologies and services shared across borders can benefit a country’s production. In addition, it stimulates International Trade countries to work together, enabling each country to benefit from the other.

International trade has directly contributed to the industrialization of many countries. Advancements in ocean shipping have allowed companies to do business all over the world. Standardization of practices is recognized worldwide. This helps countries overcome problems that were associated with international business.

Take, for example, the path a standard container would take. Goods that are produced in Egypt can be loaded directly into the container of a semi-trailer truck. It can be picked up and transferred directly to a train car, and then it can be transported by rail. From there, it can be unloaded at the dock and placed directly onto a freighter or sea freight. He travels across the ocean where he is encountered with the same standard equipment that he can transfer from ship to barge, truck or train.

In the past, international shipping was a lengthy, expensive, and sometimes unpredictable endeavor. With state-of-the-art tracking and standards set by industry leaders around the world, international trading is a reliable, beneficial and profitable way to do business.

Advances in logistics have changed the face of the global economy, manufacturing and international trade.


Because of these differences between domestic trade and foreign trade, economists have developed a separate theory of international trade known as the principle of comparative cost (advantage). However, it must be noted that the distinction between these two types of trade is not absolute but one distinction. After all, as all Trade types Arise from specialization (regional or international).

common questions

What does internal trade mean?

Domestic trade, which is different from international trade, is the exchange of domestic goods within the borders of a country. This can be divided into two categories, wholesale and retail.

What are the benefits of internal trade?

It provides economic goods: Internal trade provides goods at a cheaper cost to people within the country. Locally produced goods are free of any exchange fees and many taxes which reduce the total cost.
Less competition: Restrict the entry of any foreign player into the local market.

What is foreign trade?

Foreign trade is the exchange of capital, goods and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, it accounts for a large share of the GDP.

What are the types of foreign trade?

There are three types of international trade: export trade, import trade, and enterput trade. You can check out our guide about Types of international trade Learn more about each type.

What is the purpose of foreign trade?

International trade and the financial transactions accompanying it are generally conducted for the purpose of providing the country with the commodities it lacks in return for those it produces in abundance; Such transactions, working with other economic policies, tend to improve the standard of living of the nation.

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