If you’re considering home ownership and wondering how to get started, you’ve come to the right place. Here we’ll cover all the basics of a mortgage, including loan types, mortgage language, the home buying process, and more.
Getting a mortgage is one of the most important financial decisions most of us will ever make. Therefore, it is imperative that you understand what you are signing into when borrowing money to buy a home.
A mortgage is a loan that a borrower uses to purchase or maintain a home or other form of real estate and agrees to pay it back over time, usually in a series of regular payments.
The property acts as collateral to secure the loan.
The term “loan” can be used to describe any financial transaction where one party receives a lump sum and agrees to pay back the money.
A mortgage is a type of loan used to finance real estate. A mortgage is a type of loan, but not all loans are mortgages.
Mortgages are “secured” loans. With a secured loan, the borrower promises guarantees to the lender in the event that they stop making payments. F
In the case of a mortgage, the collateral is the house. If you stop making your mortgage payments, your lender can take possession of your home, in a process known as foreclosure.
Individuals and companies use mortgages to purchase real estate without paying the entire purchase price up front.
Over a set number of years, the borrower repays the loan, plus interest, until he owns the property free and clear.
Mortgages are also known as “property liens” or “property claims”. If the borrower stops paying the mortgage, the lender can foreclose on the property.
For example, in a residential mortgage, a home buyer pledges their home to a bank or another lender, who then has a claim on the property if the buyer defaults on the mortgage.
In the event of a foreclosure, the lender may evict the home’s occupants and sell the property, using the money from the sale to pay down the mortgage debt.
Potential borrowers begin the process by applying to one or more mortgage lenders. The lender will require proof that the borrower is able to repay the loan, which may include bank statements andinvestment , recent tax returns, and current proof of employment. The lender will generally do a credit check as well.
If the application is approved, the lender will offer a loan to the borrower up to a certain amount and at a certain interest rate.
Homebuyers can apply for a mortgage after they have chosen a property to buy or while they are still shopping for a home, a process known as pre-approval.
Getting pre-approved for a mortgage can give buyers an advantage in a tight housing market because sellers will know they have the money to back their offer.
Once the buyer and seller have agreed on the terms of their deal, he or their representatives will meet in what is called the closing. The seller will transfer ownership of the property to the buyer and receive the agreed amount of money, and the buyer will sign any remaining mortgage documents.
Mortgages come in a variety of forms. The most common types are 30-year and 15-year fixed-rate mortgages.
Some mortgages can have terms of up to five years, while others may extend to 40 years or more.
Extending the payments over more years reduces the monthly payment but increases the total amount of interest the borrower will pay over the life of the loan.
With a fixed rate mortgage, the interest rate remains the same for the life of the loan, as does the borrower’s monthly payments towards the mortgage. A fixed-rate mortgage is also called a “traditional” mortgage.
With an adjustable rate mortgage, the interest rate is fixed for an initial period, after which it can change periodically based on prevailing interest rates.
The initial interest rate is often lower than the market rate, making the mortgage affordable in the short term but possibly less expensive in the long term, if the rate rises significantly.
Adjustable rate mortgages usually have limits or limits on how much the interest rate can go up each time it is adjusted and in the aggregate over the life of the loan.
Other, less common types of mortgages, such as interest-only and payment option mortgages, can have complex repayment schedules and are preferred by savvy borrowers.
Many homeowners experienced financial problems with these types of mortgages during the housing bubble of the early 2000s.
As its name suggests, reverse mortgages are an entirely different financial product. It is designed for homeowners 62 and older who want to convert a portion of the equity in their home into cash.
Homeowners can borrow against the value of their home and receive the money as a lump sum, a fixed monthly payment, or a line of credit. The entire loan balance becomes due when the borrower dies, moves away permanently, or sells the home.
Depending on your mortgage agreement, your monthly payment may also include some of the following fees:
The lender may collect property taxes associated with the home as part of the monthly mortgage payment. In such cases, the tax-collected money is held in an escrow account, which the lender will use to pay your property tax bill when taxes are due.
Homeowners insurance protects you in the event of a disaster, fire or other accident. In some cases, the lender collects your insurance premiums as part of your monthly mortgage bill, puts the money into an escrow account, and makes the payment to the insurance provider when the policy premiums are due.
Your monthly mortgage payment may also include a fee for what is known as private mortgage insurance (Private Mortgage Insurance).PMI). This is a type of insurance that many traditional mortgage lenders require when the buyer’s down payment is less than 20 percent of the home’s purchase price.
When you’re ready to start showing real estate, real estate agents may ask if you have a mortgage agreement in principle (AIP).
Also known as a decision in principle, a mortgage agreement in principle is a statement from a bank saying that it is, in principle, willing to lend you a certain amount of money, subject to passing your full affordability checks.
Getting a mortgage agreement in principle can help you prove your budget to real estate agents and show sellers that you are a serious buyer.
However, owning one will not always be necessary and can in some circumstances make a dent in your credit score, so ask real estate agents in your area if you will need one before applying.
Finding a mortgage can be complicated, but you can save time and money by using a mortgage broker (a professional advisor who can find and apply for a deal for you).
Some mortgages are only available through brokers (“brokers”), but in others it’s the opposite and you’ll only get the deal if you apply yourself.
The entire market broker has to look at the entire mortgage market and recommend the right deal for you.
As you weigh your mortgage options, here are some key terms you may encounter (and here are other key terms to know).
Amortization describes the process of paying off a loan, such as a mortgage, in installments over a period of time. Part of each payment goes toward the principal, or the amount borrowed, while the other part goes toward interest.
A typical home loan may be amortized over 15, 20, or 30 years, with the amount devoted to interest and principal decreasing and increasing, respectively, over the term.
When a loan is fully amortized, it means that it has been paid in full by the end of the amortization schedule.
The APR, or APR, reflects the cost of borrowing money for a mortgage.
A broader measure than interest rate alone, APR includes the interest rate, discount points, and other fees that come with a loan.
The annual interest rate is higher than the interest rate and is a better measure of the true cost of the loan.
The down payment is the amount of the home purchase price that the home buyer pays in advance. Buyers usually put a percentage of the home’s value down as a down payment, and then borrow the remainder in the form of a mortgage.
A larger down payment can help improve the borrower’s chances of getting a lower interest rate. Different types of mortgages have varying minimum down payments.
An escrow account holds a portion of the borrower’s monthly mortgage payment that covers homeowners insurance premiums and property taxes. T
Escrow accounts also contain the earnest money that a buyer deposits between the time his offer is accepted and closing. An insurance and tax escrow account is usually set up by a mortgage lender, which makes insurance and tax payments on behalf of the borrower.
This system ensures that the lender will pay these bills, and gives the borrower the convenience of paying these expenses in small installments each month, rather than being hit with a large bill once or twice a year.
Mortgage underwriting is the process by which a bank or mortgage lender evaluates the risks that they may be exposed to by lending to a particular borrower.
The underwriting process requires an application and takes into account factors such as the borrower’s credit report, score, income, debt, and the value of the property they intend to purchase.
Many lenders follow the standard underwriting guidelines from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac when deciding whether or not to approve a loan.
A mortgage is a type of loan that you can use to purchase a home. It is an agreement between the lender and the borrower.
Knowing some basic mortgage terms beforehand can help you understand exactly what you are signing up for. There are different types of mortgages and different types of interest rates.
The biggest steps of the home buying process are getting approved, shopping for your home and making an offer, getting final approval, and closing.
A mortgage is an agreement between you and the lender that gives the lender the right to take your property if you fail to repay the money you borrowed plus interest.
If you are buying an ordinary single-family home, taking out a mortgage is your best bet. Personal loans usually have much shorter repayment periods and higher interest rates than mortgage loans, making them a poor choice in this situation.
A loan is the sum of money borrowed from a financial institution to meet various monetary requirements. Mortgage is the function of holding immovable property as collateral with the lender to make use of the loan.
Depending on your needs, the cheapest way to borrow money is likely to be a personal loan or credit card. However, these are not the only ways to get money. You can also use a bank checking account overdraft or borrow against the value of your home.