You are following this site from a computer, whether it is a computer or a mobile phone. Both are computer devices in the end, but how did it all start and from where? In this article, we will take you on a journey that we will delve into History of the computer industry We stop at each stage of the development of computers over time to know what computers were used for at each stage and era of those periods.
We will begin our journey through the stages of development of computers, starting with the computers we use today all the way to the first computer in human history. Prepare for your journey, starting with the small computer in your hand, as we will reach together to the deepest point in the history of the emergence of computing devices and what they were.
Fifth generation computers are the devices we have in our hands today. You might tell me that now there is a thirteenth generation and the fourteenth generation will be released soon. So allow me to tell you, dear reader, that what you are talking about are generations of processors, not generations of computers. The fifth generation here is those computers that operate with microprocessors and artificial intelligence. These are the computers that we use now and that we will use in the near future.
What is meant by microprocessors are those processors from the thirteenth generation and the generations that followed, and these generations are processor generations, as we mentioned previously. The mechanism of operation of these processors is the principle of parallel processing and large-scale integration, which means using several parallel processors in one computer to perform tasks at the same time. For example, octa-core processors are two processing units, each with four cores that work together to perform different tasks faster.
To enter and output data in these computers, screens, printers, keyboards, and mice are used, in addition to touch screens, as in smartphones and laptops. As for memory, RAM and ROM are used, in addition to external storage memories such as USB sticks, CD-Floppy disks, and DVDs, although no one uses them anymore.
These computers are used in various areas of life and have become with us at all times. Who does not use a computer or smartphone, in addition to uses in robots, medical devices, and various gaming devices.
If you think, dear reader, that you knew what computers are and the stages of development of computers from the first paragraph, I am sorry to tell you that we were still on the surface and starting from now our real journey has begun. Before the emergence of the current form of computers, fourth generation computers were used, which began to be used in 1971. During that period, microprocessors were used in computers for the first time.
Microprocessors have significantly improved the performance of computers and increased their speed, in addition to reducing their electricity consumption and heat emissions. On the other hand, computers became smaller in size, lighter in weight, and much easier to transport, whereas before computers were very bulky.
While the mouse, keyboard, screen, and printer were used as data input and output units in that period, scanners were also used for the first time in this type of computer. On the other hand, RAM and ROM storage units appeared in that period, in addition to Floppy magnetic disks as removable external storage units. These computers were also considered the first computers in the world intended for personal use. You can transport it and use it at home.
get to know me: The world’s first computer
Diving deeper into the stages of development of computers, specifically to the period between 1964 – 1971. Before the invention of microprocessors, integrated circuits known as ICs or semiconductors were used. It is a group of small transistors arranged on silicon chips.
This has contributed to reducing the cost of manufacturing computers, in addition to their smaller size than before and increasing their capacity and efficiency. Despite all this, computers at that time needed their own office with many cooling and ventilation systems.
In that era, the two programming languages BASIC and PASCAL were invented, which are considered the basis of the modern programming languages that we talked about.
Keyboards, monitors, printers, and floppy disks were used as input and output units in these computers. On the other hand, the magnetic core was used as memory in those computers, and the magnetic Floppy disks were used as external memories.
In that era, only small and medium-sized companies, as well as large companies, used computers. It was not available for personal use at that time.
By delving deeper into the stages of development of computers, specifically in the period between 1956 – 1964, transistors were used in computers, which were the basis for the semiconductor industry later on. The transistor contributed to significantly reducing the price of the computer compared to before. In addition to reducing its heat emission and electricity consumption and reducing its size as well. It is only slightly larger than third generation computers.
To deal with second generation computers, languages such as assembly language were used, which were more like ready-made codes for dealing with computers, in addition to machine language, which had been used for a long time at that time. Among the most famous assembly languages in that period were FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL.
As for input and output units in that period, they were limited to magnetic disks, as using a computer required a specialist to enter data into it. As for the memories in this generation, the magnetic core appeared for the first time in that period, in addition to the magnetic disks that worked as input and output units in addition to working as memories at the same time.
In that period, computers were very expensive. No one was able to buy it except the large companies that were using it to speed up their operations and organize the company’s accounts only. In addition to military mathematical uses.
By diving to the deepest point in the stages of computer development. We reach the first generation computers from which the beginning of the technological era emerged between the years 1940 – 1955. At that time, there were no transistors yet, but rather what were called vacuum tubes were used to operate them. You can get more information about it by reading an article Stages of computer development.
Imagine with me, dear reader, that at that time you needed a very large and spacious room to place the computer in. Not to mention the huge noise coming from it, the high heat, and the huge consumption of electricity as well. Here only machine language was used to deal with these computers.
In that period, input and output units were limited to punched cards, in which each hole meant 1, while the non-punched part meant 0. As for memories, magnetic tapes were used as storage memories, as the tape was similar to the tape of an old video camera, but it relied on magnetic induction to dig up the data. on him.
Thus, first generation computers were used for military uses only, as they were created for this specific purpose. But it was not very practical as it was slow and limited to only one calculation on each run. In addition to the high consumption of electricity, as it was only used for calculation and storage.
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In the end, can you compare your smart computer with first generation computers? So you can see the clear development of computers. Computers were originally invented to speed up calculations and perform calculations in the shortest possible time. Based on this, the current form of computers that can perform millions of operations per second eventually resulted.