Computer components – an introduction to computer science

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  • January 11, 2024
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If you are writing a research paper in computer science or want to specialize in this field and need comprehensive research in computer science, this article will be an essential reference for you, in which we will talk about all the components and parts of the computer and clarify the differences between the basic parts and the important parts that many people confuse. This is so that you have a comprehensive idea about All parts of the computer.

First, computer hardware components

It is considered Hardware in the computer The infrastructure that no computer can function without. The computer components, in terms of hardware, work in an integrated manner, as each part complements the other, and if any part stops working, the entire computer will stop. Accordingly, dear researcher, the hardware sections are considered major parts in the computer, and the computer cannot be operated if any part of it is missing.


The motherboard is the most prominent computer componentThe motherboard is the most prominent computer component

The Mather Board in a computer is like the blood circulation in the human body. The main function of the motherboard is to connect the various components to each other and direct the flow of data between them. The motherboard is also responsible for providing the power needed to operate the computer components properly.

On the other hand, the motherboard features a set of slots and ports that allow many devices to be connected, such as sound cards, network cards, and graphics cards. It also contains integrated chipsets that manage and organize data flow and work to ensure sufficient compatibility and balance between the various components.



The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the basic component of a computer. It is the computer brain and mind. The central processing unit carries out arithmetic and control operations in the computer. It also controls the coordination and execution of programs and commands stored in memory and organizes them according to the priority of each process.

The central processing unit consists of many important components such as the core, the control unit, and the arithmetic and execution unit. The central processing unit is also characterized by its speed and its ability to process operations very quickly according to a specific order. On the other hand, it contains a group of advanced technologies such as Multi-Core and high frequency.

Graphics processor

Graphics processor - computer componentsGraphics processor - computer components

The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is one of the main components of the computer and is characterized by its primary role in graphics processing and visual display. The graphics processor is used to accelerate normal and three-dimensional (3D) display operations, in addition to video processing and running modern games and advanced graphic applications.

Thus, the graphics processing unit is characterized by providing enormous computational power and a wide range of cores and processing units. This allows complex graphical operations to be carried out with high efficiency. In addition, graphics processors contain their own memory (VRAM) to store graphic data and speed up access to it.



Random Access Memory (RAM) in a computer is like short-term memory in the human body. It plays a crucial role in system performance and speed of execution of operations. Thus, RAM is used to store temporary data that is accessed directly by the processor and programs running on the interface or in the background.

As we mentioned, RAM is characterized by its high speed and its ability to read and write quickly and efficiently. RAM, on the other hand, comes in different capacities and is available with advanced technologies such as DDR4 and DDR5. Thus, RAM is a crucial part of the user experience. It directly affects the speed of loading applications and running programs and games.

Storage space

SSD Vs HDD StorageSSD Vs HDD Storage

Storage space in a computer is the main factor that affects the computer’s ability to store and retrieve data and files. Storage space in the computer is available in several forms, namely the HDD hard disk, the SSD hard disk, and external memory cards such as USB.

On the other hand, what determines the value of storage space is its capacity and speed. It is available in various capacities ranging from gigabytes to terabytes. Technologies are still developing to provide more space and higher speed. An SSD hard disk is faster and more efficient than an HDD hard disk and provides a faster response time and higher data transfer speed as well.

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Secondly, computer components: input and output

As for input and output devices, they can be considered very important parts of the computer. You will not be able to enter or output data without it. But the difference between it and the hardware is that you can operate the computer without it, but you will not be able to benefit from it at all. Accordingly, the following tools are considered key parts for your computer to work efficiently.

the screen

A screen within the computer componentsA screen within the computer components

The screen is one of the most prominent computer components responsible for displaying data. It is a visual interface for displaying information and graphics. There are also several types of screens available in various sizes and resolutions, including LCD screens, LED screens, and modern OLED screens.

On the other hand, what determines the quality of the screen is the quality of the image and colors, in addition to its accuracy and brightness. The use of advanced technologies such as High Definition (HD) display, Ultra High Definition (UHD) display and curved display technology is the basis for determining screen quality.


Illuminated keyboardIlluminated keyboard

The keyboard is one of the most important means of entering data into a computer. Its primary task is to enter letters, numbers, and commands. The keyboards are also available in three different designs including mechanical keyboards, standard keyboards, and illuminated keyboards.

As for the factor that determines the quality of the keyboard, first is the quality of manufacturing, raw materials, and durability as well. While you should pay attention to the design of the buttons and the flexibility of their use. On the other hand, there are some keyboards dedicated to gaming or special functions, such as audio interfaces and dedicated lighting, and they have special specifications for this purpose and always have the word Gaming written on them.


Latest mouseLatest mouse

In the end, we have the mouse, which is considered one of the most important computer components used to control and interact with the graphical interface. Thus, the mouse provides the function of controlling the movement of the cursor on the screen and facilitates the execution of various commands. The mouse is also available in multiple shapes and designs, including a regular mouse, a wireless mouse, and a gaming mouse.

On the other hand, what determines the quality of the mouse is the quality of manufacture and comfort of use, in addition to the design of the buttons and scroll wheel. It is also recommended to use a mouse with high accuracy and fast response to achieve the best possible performance. Accordingly, the mouse must be chosen according to the user’s needs, such as normal use, gaming, or professional use.

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On the other hand, there are many other input units used on computers, such as printers, scanners, and many different devices. But it is not considered one of the basic computer components. While the mouse, keyboard, and monitor are considered indispensable input and output units when using a computer.


Some people may confuse the basic and subsidiary components of a computer, the parts necessary to operate the computer, and the parts necessary to use it. Accordingly, we had to publish an entire article to differentiate between these parts so as not to confuse them. Therefore, if you are preparing research in computer science, we hope that this article will be useful to you.

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